For Boccaccio, Prometheus is placed "In the heavens where all is clarity and truth, [Prometheus] steals, so to speak, a ray of the divine wisdom from God himself, source of all Science, supreme Light of every man. Using a similar interpretation to that of Boccaccio, Marsilio Ficino in the fifteenth century updated the philosophical and more sombre reception of the Prometheus myth not seen since the time of Plotinus. In his book written in —77 titled Quaestiones Quinque de Mente , Ficino indicates his preference for reading the Prometheus myth as an image of the human soul seeking to obtain supreme truth.
As Olga Raggio summarises Ficino's text, "The torture of Prometheus is the torment brought by reason itself to man, who is made by it many times more unhappy than the brutes. It is after having stolen one beam of the celestial light [ After the writings of both Boccaccio and Ficino in the late Middle Ages about Prometheus, interest in the Titan shifted considerably in the direction of becoming subject matter for painters and sculptors alike.
Among the most famous examples is that of Piero di Cosimo from about presently on display at the museums of Munich and Strasburg see Inset. Raggio summarises the Munich version  as follows; "The Munich panel represents the dispute between Epimetheus and Prometheus, the handsome triumphant statue of the new man, modelled by Prometheus, his ascension to the sky under the guidance of Minerva; the Strasburg panel shows in the distance Prometheus lighting his torch at the wheels of the Sun, and in the foreground on one side, Prometheus applying his torch to the heart of the statue and, on the other, Mercury fastening him to a tree.
The same reference to the Genealogiae can be cited as the source for the drawing by Parmigianino presently located in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York City. This drawing is perhaps one of the most intense examples of the visualisation of the myth of Prometheus from the Renaissance period. Writing in the late British Renaissance, William Shakespeare uses the Promethean allusion in the famous death scene of Desdemona in his tragedy of Othello.
Othello in contemplating the death of Desdemona asserts plainly that he cannot restore the "Promethean heat" to her body once it has been extinguished. For Shakespeare, the allusion is clearly to the interpretation of the fire from the heat as the bestowing of life to the creation of man from clay by Prometheus after it was stolen from Olympus.
The analogy bears direct resemblance to the biblical narrative of the creation of life in Adam through the bestowed breathing of the creator in Genesis. Shakespeare's symbolic reference to the "heat" associated with Prometheus's fire is to the association of the gift of fire to the mythological gift or theological gift of life to humans.
The myth of Prometheus has been a favourite theme of Western art and literature in the post- renaissance and post- Enlightenment tradition and, occasionally, in works produced outside the West. For the Romantic era , Prometheus was the rebel who resisted all forms of institutional tyranny epitomised by Zeus — church, monarch, and patriarch. The Romantics drew comparisons between Prometheus and the spirit of the French Revolution , Christ , the Satan of John Milton 's Paradise Lost , and the divinely inspired poet or artist.
In Prometheus Unbound , a four-act lyrical drama, Percy Bysshe Shelley rewrites the lost play of Aeschylus so that Prometheus does not submit to Zeus under the Latin name Jupiter , but instead supplants him in a triumph of the human heart and intellect over tyrannical religion. Lord Byron 's poem "Prometheus" also portrays the Titan as unrepentant.
As documented by Olga Raggio, other leading figures among the great Romantics included Byron, Longfellow and Nietzsche as well. Prometheus is a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , in which a character based on the mythic Prometheus addresses God as Zeus in a romantic and misotheist tone of accusation and defiance. The poem was written between and It was first published fifteen years later in It is an important work as it represents one of the first encounters of the Prometheus myth with the literary Romantic movement identified with Goethe and with the Sturm und Drang movement.
The poem has appeared in Volume 6 of Goethe's poems in his Collected Works in a section of Vermischte Gedichte assorted poems , shortly following the Harzreise im Winter. It is immediately followed by "Ganymed" , and the two poems are written as informing each other according to Goethe's plan in their actual writing.
Prometheus was originally planned as a drama but never completed by Goethe, though the poem is inspired by it.
Prometheus is the creative and rebellious spirit rejected by God and who angrily defies him and asserts himself. Ganymede , by direct contrast, is the boyish self who is both adored and seduced by God. As a high Romantic poet and a humanist poet, Goethe presents both identities as contrasting aspects of the Romantic human condition.
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The poem offers direct biblical connotations for the Prometheus myth which was unseen in any of the ancient Greek poets dealing with the Prometheus myth in either drama, tragedy, or philosophy. The intentional use of the German phrase " Da ich ein Kind war Goethe's Prometheus is significant for the contrast it evokes with the biblical text of the Corinthians rather than for its similarities. With this change from the traditional lineage the poet distinguished his hero from the race of the Titans.
Percy Shelley published his four-act lyrical drama titled Prometheus Unbound in His version was written in response to the version of myth as presented by Aeschylus and is orientated to the high British Idealism and high British Romanticism prevailing in Shelley's own time. Shelley, as the author himself discusses, admits the debt of his version of the myth to Aeschylus and the Greek poetic tradition which he assumes is familiar to readers of his own lyrical drama. For example, it is necessary to understand and have knowledge of the reason for Prometheus's punishment if the reader is to form an understanding of whether the exoneration portrayed by Shelley in his version of the Prometheus myth is justified or unjustified.
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The quote of Shelley's own words describing the extent of his indebtedness to Aeschylus has been published in numerous sources publicly available. The literary critic Harold Bloom in his book Shelley's Mythmaking expresses his high expectation of Shelley in the tradition of mythopoeic poetry.
For Bloom, Percy Shelley's relationship to the tradition of mythology in poetry "culminates in 'Prometheus'. The poem provides a complete statement of Shelley's vision. Within the pages of his Introduction to the Chelsea House edition on Percy Shelley, Harold Bloom also identifies the six major schools of criticism opposing Shelley's idealised mythologising version of the Prometheus myth. In sequence, the opposing schools to Shelley are given as: i The school of "common sense", ii The Christian orthodox, iii The school of "wit", iv Moralists, of most varieties, v The school of "classic" form, and vi The Precisionists, or concretists.
The Greek origins of the Prometheus myth have already discussed the Titanomachia as placing the cosmic struggle of Olympus at some point in time preceding the creation of humanity, while in the New Testament synthesis there was a strong assimilation of the prophetic tradition of the Hebrew prophets and their strongly eschatological orientation. This contrast placed a strong emphasis within the ancient Greek consciousness as to the moral and ontological acceptance of the mythology of the Titanomachia as an accomplished mythological history, whereas for the synthesis of the New Testament narratives this placed religious consciousness within the community at the level of an anticipated eschaton not yet accomplished.
Neither of these would guide Percy Shelley in his poetic retelling and re-integration of the Prometheus myth. To the Socratic Greeks, one important aspect of the discussion of religion would correspond to the philosophical discussion of 'becoming' with respect to the New Testament syncretism rather than the ontological discussion of 'being' which was more prominent in the ancient Greek experience of mythologically oriented cult and religion.
Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus , written by Mary Shelley when she was 18, was published in , two years before Percy Shelley's above-mentioned play. It has endured as one of the most frequently revisited literary themes in twentieth century film and popular reception with few rivals for its sheer popularity among even established literary works of art. The primary theme is a parallel to the aspect of the Prometheus myth which concentrates on the creation of man by the Titans, transferred and made contemporary by Shelley for British audiences of her time.
The subject is that of the creation of life by a scientist, thus bestowing life through the application and technology of medical science rather than by the natural acts of reproduction. The short novel has been adapted into many films and productions ranging from the early versions with Boris Karloff to later versions featuring Kenneth Branagh. Franz Kafka wrote a short piece on Prometheus, outlining what he saw as his perspective on four aspects of his myth:. According to the first, he was clamped to a rock in the Caucasus for betraying the secrets of the gods to men, and the gods sent eagles to feed on his liver, which was perpetually renewed.
According to the second, Prometheus, goaded by the pain of the tearing beaks, pressed himself deeper and deeper into the rock until he became one with it. According to the third, his treachery was forgotten in the course of thousands of years, forgotten by the gods, the eagles, forgotten by himself. According to the fourth, everyone grew weary of the meaningless affair. The gods grew weary, the eagles grew weary, the wound closed wearily.
There remains the inexplicable mass of rock. The legend tried to explain the inexplicable. As it came out of a substratum of truth it had in turn to end in the inexplicable. This short piece by Kafka concerning his interest in Prometheus was supplemented by two other mythological pieces written by him. As stated by Reiner Stach, "Kafka's world was mythical in nature, with Old Testament and Jewish legends providing the templates.
It was only logical even if Kafka did not state it openly that he would try his hand at the canon of antiquity, re-interpreting it and incorporating it into his own imagination in the form of allusions, as in 'The Silence of the Sirens,' 'Prometheus,' and 'Poseidon. The Nepali poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota d. In his book, Lucifer and Prometheus , Zvi Werblowsky presented the speculatively derived Jungian construction of the character of Satan in Milton's celebrated poem Paradise Lost. Werblowsky applied his own Jungian style of interpretation to appropriate parts of the Prometheus myth for the purpose of interpreting Milton.
A reprint of his book in the s by Routledge Press included an introduction to the book by Carl Jung. Some Gnostics have been associated with identifying the theft of fire from heaven as embodied by the fall of Lucifer "the Light Bearer". Ayn Rand cited the Prometheus myth in Anthem , The Fountainhead , and Atlas Shrugged , using the mythological character as a metaphor for creative people rebelling against the confines of modern society.
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The artificial chemical element promethium is named after Prometheus. Works of classical music , opera , and ballet directly or indirectly inspired by the myth of Prometheus have included renderings by some of the major composers of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In this tradition, the orchestral representation of the myth has received the most sustained attention of composers. These have included the symphonic poem by Franz Liszt titled Prometheus from , among his other Symphonic Poems No.
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An adaptation of Goethe's poetic version of the myth was composed by Hugo Wolf , Prometheus Bedecke deinen Himmel, Zeus , , as part of his Goethe - lieder for voice and piano,  later transcribed for orchestra and voice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mythological figure, a Greek Titan. For other uses, see Prometheus disambiguation. See also: Prometheus in popular culture.
Kundalini — the evolutionary energy in man. SBN 9. Archived from the original on Blackwell Publishing, p. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 5 February This source is used for its review of the literature on the Indo-European and Vedic origin of Prometheus rather than for conclusions reached in it. West commentaries on Hesiod, W. Verdenius commentaries on Hesiod, and R. Lamberton's Hesiod , pp. Retrieved Band 1. Stuttgart , p. Aischylos als Regisseur und Theologe , p. The Journal of Hellenic Studies. Untersuchungen uber griechischen Mythos: Genealogie als mythische Form.
For instance, rather than being the son of Iapetus and Clymene Prometheus becomes the son of Themis who is identified with Gaia. In addition, the chorus makes a passing reference to Prometheus' wife Hesione , whereas a fragment from Hesiod's Catalogue of Women fr. Christ and Prometheus.
Related Metamorphose am Rande des Himmels: Roman (German Edition)
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