Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011

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IJDRR publishes fundamental and applied research, critical reviews, policy papers and case studies with a particular focus on multi-disciplinary research that aims to reduce the impact of natural, technological, social and intentional disasters. IJDRR stimulates exchange of ideas and knowledge transfer on disaster research, mitigation, adaptation, prevention and risk reduction at all geographical scales: local, national and international.

The journal particularly encourages papers that approach risk from a multi-disciplinary perspective. This journal has partnered with Heliyon Energy, a dedicated section of Heliyon, an open access journal from Cell Press that publishes scientifically accurate and valuable research in energy.

International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction

Heliyon Energy aims to make it easier for authors to share their research with a global audience quickly and easily, while benefitting from the subject-area expertise of specialized section editors, who ensure your work is considered fairly and reaches the right audience. Authors can quickly and easily transfer their research from a Partner Journal to Heliyon without the need to edit, reformat, or resubmit.

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Learn more. Search in:. ISSN: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. Editor In Chief: David E. View Editorial Board. Submit Your Paper. Supports Open Access. View Articles.

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Authorization of appropriations. National Windstorm Impact Reduction Program. C the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration;. E the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and. F the Office of Management and Budget; and. B short-term, mid-term, and long-term research objectives to achieve those goals;. C a description of the role of each Program agency in achieving the prioritized goals;. D the methods by which progress towards the goals will be assessed;. E an explanation of how the Program will foster the transfer of research results into outcomes, such as improved model building codes;.

F a description of how the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation and the Advanced National Seismic Research and Monitoring System may be used in achieving the prioritized goals and research objectives; and. G an explanation of how the Program will coordinate its activities with other Federal agencies performing activities relevant to the Program; and. E an explanation of how the Program will foster the transfer of research results into outcomes, such as improved model building codes; and.

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Across South Asia, however, such integration is only in a preliminary stage. This review was to assess the existing status and scope of DRR including CCA in development projects across South Asia, so that an effective and achievable deliberation may be made to regional policymakers. The project inventory was diverse in nature with respect to location, scale, sectoral focus, and strategic importance.

Meta-analysis of the project inventory suggests an urgent need for an individual and collaborative convergence of processes for DRR and CCA through policies, plans, strategies, and programs. Climate-related disasters in the South Asian region are becoming more frequent, destructive, and costlier in terms of both economic and social impacts UNISDR ; Bhatt et al.

From to , there has been a continuous increase in the number of climate-related disasters, peaking from to EM-DAT Interestingly, the rate of mortality associated with such disasters has been considerably reduced in the current era, even though the number of people reportedly affected has been increased enormously.

Entire South Asia is frequently exposed to severe climate-related disasters, a situation that has been further complicated by unprecedented population growth, reaching a massive 1. The entire population is vulnerable to change in climate and extreme events because of the low level of institutional capabilities, economic vulnerability, and great dependence on climate-sensitive resources SAARC ; MHA ; Mall and Srivastava The extent of this stress is, however, highly uncertain because the magnitude of climate-related disasters is so variable.

More than half of the South Asian countries, particularly Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Nepal, are classified as least developed countries as of March United Nations and are grappling with various socioeconomic issues such as poverty, health, and education. Therefore, climate-related environmental hazards and their impacts potentially have serious consequences over the entire region and should be addressed with specific considerations of unique regional geomorphology, culture, and socioeconomic structures.

Disaster risk reduction means reducing disaster-related risks through a systematic effort.

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Improved preparedness, reduction in individual exposure, reduced damage to property, proper management of land, and enhanced population resilience are the core objectives of DRR UNISDR Climate change adaptation only refers to the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, including regulating damages and exploiting possible beneficial opportunities UNFCCC ; IPCC Both DRR and CCA have several similarities and represent similar policy goals, DRR is concerned with a widely known problem in the field of all environmental hazards and CCA with only emerging issues related to climate change-instigated environmental hazards.

While these concerns have different origins, DRR deals with all environmental hazards including CCA, which by definition is about change in climate and largely through the common factors of weather and climate and through tools used to monitor, analyze, and address adverse consequences Kelman et al.

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In addition to CCA, many states have been making efforts to institutionalize several practices relating to DRR to reduce regional vulnerability. In tune with this paradigm shift in disaster management, the focus has shifted to other components of DRR, such as preparedness, prevention, and mitigation. However, many DRR measures, particularly those related to hydrometeorological events such as drought-proofing, flood protection, cyclone warning and shelters, malaria eradication, resistant agriculture, mangrove conservation, saline embankment, and alternative livelihood development, have similarities to CCA measures in terms of their application.

Various researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and organizations focused on the similarities and differences between CCA and DRR, and on the process for integration Kelman and Gaillard ; Alexander et al.

International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction

Suggestions of increases in the frequency, intensity, and severity of climate-related disasters call for better integration of DRR and CCA in order to reduce vulnerability and increase population resilience, especially over the South Asian region Seidler et al. However, the integration of CCA and DRR policies is extremely challenging and therefore requires a proper framework to avoid duplication and to derive optimal benefits from scarce resources Mall et al. Recently there have been emphases on including CCA within DRR to make it a single comprehensive mechanism with multiple approaches Kelman et al.

Kelman and Gaillard also emphasized that by embedding CCA within DRR, it ensures a long-term perspective to achieve development goals, neither by distracting through politics of climate change nor by emphasizing a hazard-focused approach. Kelman et al. Population of Estimated. The South Asian region is a hotspot for almost all types of climate-related disasters Gaiha and Hill ; Mall et al.

The most prominent disaster risks are associated with floods, earthquakes, landslides, droughts, and cyclones. From to , of the reported disasters that caused 0. Floods and droughts combined were reported to affect over 2 billion people, while cyclones were responsible for approximately 0. In the decade between and , the trend was almost identical, with disaster being responsible for 1. A major threat to some of the countries adjoining the Himalayas and Central Asia comes from the fast-melting glaciers, which are projected to influence regional downstream runoff IPCC However, in recent years through proper implementation of early warning systems, improved preparedness, exposure reduction, and efficient management plan there has been a reduction in damages particularly by hydrometeorological hazards.

The extent of impact from disaster depends on multiple interlinked factors, such as severity of the event; the nature of the community; preparedness for the event; exposure of the population; and the active geological, seismological, and hydrometeorological regimes of the region. Time series for development of major approaches, legislations, and institutions for climate change adaptation CCA and disaster risk reduction DRR in South Asia.

The foundation of an institutional structure for disaster management in Afghanistan may be traced back to , when a series of disasters hit the country GIRA The Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority ANDMA , initially established in as the office of disaster preparedness, underwent several relocations within the Afghan government because of political disturbances before being upgraded to a ministerial level.

It has a mandate to carry out mitigation, preparedness, response, and search and rescue operations followed by recovery and rehabilitation. Since , the United Nations Development Programme UNDP has led a national disaster management project to enhance institutional capacities at the national and provincial levels. To address the issue of climate change, Afghanistan started with the National Development Framework, which was approved in The National Environmental Protection Agency NEPA was established in with a mandate to formulate environment-related policy, coordination, and enforcement and to work as a regulatory institution.

The National Adaptation Programme of Action NAPA for Climate Change was adopted in to address the issues of adaptation and mitigation, integration of climate change considerations into national planning, creating awareness, and developing societal resilience in response to climatic threats. The evolution of the institutional setup for disaster management in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan may be traced back to the precolonial period, when it was an activity-based reactive mechanism.

Over time, it was institutionalized as a proactive structure from a single-faculty domain to a multiple stakeholder setup with a modified focus on reducing and mitigating risk. Bangladesh now has a robust framework for disaster management, with legal backup from the Disaster Management Act of ; the National Disaster Management Policy, drafted in ; and the National Plan for Disaster Management of Additionally, the government of Bangladesh has specific national nodal agencies to address individual hazards for more efficient disaster management MoEF, GoB The Ministry of Environment and Forests MoEF is the focal ministry for addressing and coordinating all climate change-related issues in coordination with the National Environmental Council, the National Steering Committee on Climate Change, climate change cells in all ministries, and the Climate Change Secretariat.

The MoEF launched the NAPA in to build the capacity, coordinated action, and resilience of the country in response to climate change. The DDM has three divisions: preparedness and response, risk prevention and reduction, and rehabilitation and reconstruction. Bhutan has severe risks associated with glacial lake outburst floods GLOFs , flash floods, and landslides.

Under its CCA program, Bhutan has undertaken several projects such as planning for emergency, contingent planning for vulnerable communities, rainwater harvesting, and GLOF risk mitigation. The NAPA has a list of activities for enhancing the adaptive capacity of the country in response to the adverse effects of climate change.

Disaster management in India has evolved from a relief-based approach to a multidimensional, proactive institutionalized setup with multiple stakeholders MoEF Initially, activities to address natural hazards were kept within the purview of provincial and state agencies. However, following a series of disasters such as the Latur , Malpa , and Bhuj earthquakes and the Orissa super cyclone , a systematic and comprehensive approach for disaster management was initiated, and the NDM was transferred in to the Ministry of Home Affairs.

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  • Further, a legal framework was created through the Disaster Management Act of , which provided a mechanism for coordinated actions of response, preparedness, and mitigation at the national, state, and district levels. Further, several acts and policy measures have been implemented to regulate and mainstream environmental and climate-related issues.

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    The Maldives, an archipelago of low-lying coral islands located in the Indian Ocean, has gradually shifted its strategy from disaster relief to disaster preparedness. It provides legal background for creating the National Disaster Management Council. Further, the National Disaster Management Centre was established in to coordinate response, recovery, and reconstruction efforts with support from the National Disaster Management Authority.

    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011 Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
    Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011

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